The cambium of the Moraceae family is particularly suitable for making bark cloth and paper. Moraceae plants have a milky sap, so they are associated with mothering, another life-giving metaphor. Written records of bark cloth in China date back to the sixth century BCE, but bark cloth had been made long before that, largely from paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera). About five thousand years ago, catamaran sailing canoes left China and moved through the Pacific, settling the many island groups that dot that great ocean. Among the things the voyagers carried were culturally important plants including paper mulberry for bark cloth, or tapa, production. To make bark cloth, strips of bark are scraped to reveal the inner white bark that is then pounded on a wooden anvil using a stone or wooden beater. The voyagers planted paper mulberry throughout the South Pacific where it adapted to tropical climates.1 Although some scholars believe bark cloth originated in the Americas, it is generally thought that the technology was carried across the Bering Sea land bridge all the way to South America. Bark cloth production also spread along various routes into Africa, and even Europe. Though bark cloth's primary use was functional (for clothing, blankets, and wrapping, for example), wherever it was or continues to be made throughout the world, it plays a symbolic role in rites of passage—birth, puberty, marriage, and death—to ensure the health and safety of the individual and society. Mayan Lacandon make bark cloth to wrap around ritual objects and to wear during rites. Strips of bark cloth are sometimes burned as offerings because the smoke enhances visions.2 One African bark cloth maker tells the story of traveling to Spiritland where he sees friends who had died and his father whom he recognized because the old man was wearing the bark cloth that his son had dressed him in for burial.3 In the Brazilian Amazon rain forest, Ticuna girls are secluded after their first period. When they emerge, wearing elaborate headdresses with feathers and bark cloth tassels that obscure their vision, men dressed as monkey-like creatures in bark cloth costumes chase them. One account speaks of these monkey-men wearing huge phalluses tipped in red dye.4 In Hawaii, sheets of tapa were used in marriage ceremonies. In Africa, black tapa was used for funeral palls.5 Where bark cloth is no longer made, commercial cloth is used as a substitute in similar rituals. winter 2011 - 3 Bark Cloth and Blue and Gold Sutras: In Costa Rica, I visited two Indian villages in search of bark cloth. Yorkin is a simple jungle settlement of leaf huts just across the river from Panama. I traveled there by dugout canoe with a teacher from the tiny school. Several Bribri men took me into the forest to show me how they gather bark for mastate, their word for bark cloth. The Bribri use various tree species that run with milky sap, harvesting at any season, as long as the moon is full. The teacher called these people, las mas olvidados, las mas escondidos, the most forgotten, most unknown. In Coto Brus, a more developed town, Guaymi people make bark cloth for hammocks, blankets, and other trade items. Neither village remembered ritual uses of mastate, but it is possible that they did not want to talk about these practices. The Guatuso people, another indigenous tribe in Costa Rica, still observe the requirement of wrapping the dead in a specially prepared, soft bark cloth; and at puberty, girls sometimes lie down and are covered in it. Among the Bribri, those who take care of the dead undertake a training period during which they sleep naked covered in bark cloth.6 In Polynesian legend, the hero Maui slowed the passage of the sun across the sky so that his mother's kapa (Hawaiian for tapa) had time to dry. While many Pacific Island cultures produced tapa, Hawaiian kapa-makers developed distinct innovations. They soaked the stripped bark in water for about a week at two different points in the process. This fermentation made the inner bark slimy, soft, and easier to beat. During the pounding, the bark expands little in length but may spread up to nine times in width. The beaters are carved with different textures to aid pounding. While kapa was not the only source of pre-contact clothing, it was the most common and versatile, in addition to being visually stunning. Hawaiian kapa technology was already well developed when Captain Cook arrived in 1778. Post-contact kapa-makers saw possibilities in Europeans' metal knives and nails. With the introduction of beaters carved using metal tools, kapa flourished and was further refined. As a nineteenth-century Hawaiian scholar wrote, "Well-made tapa must be clearer than moonlight; clearer than snow on the mountains."7 Some kapa was pounded gossamer thin and watermarked with four-faced patterned beaters to produce a lace effect. Kapa that was not lacy was painted in complex designs. Every Hawaiian, from farmers to rulers, wore kapa. "A mother made a bundle of tapa for each of her children as a dowry. Tapa was a gift for people settling in a new house; or at the first anniversary of the first born..Tapa bundles were tributes for the chiefs...Tapa was the offering to the gods when someone was very ill or dying. The chieftesses used ‘oloa (white tapa) to drape or clothe temple images…A white kapa-wrapped stick was carried in front of a chief and called a kapa stick, meaning ‘to keep sacred or forbid.' A special tent of kapu was put up for a royal couple trying to conceive."8 Kapa was shaken to free a sick person possessed by evil spirits.9 In the 1830s, industrial cloth began replacing Hawaiian kapa, until eventually it died out. In the 1970s, a group of Hawaiian craftsmen unearthed dormant skills and revived kapa. Polynesian and Hawaiian native religions revered many gods who were connected to natural life forms, places, or forces of nature. Each person was responsible for maintaining his relationship to family and the oneness of all things. The world was a numinous place; everything in the environment was imbued with the sanctity of life. Hawaiians traditionally believed that the Detail of a large tapa cloth made in Tonga showing a bird motif. Collection of the author. Detail of a large tapa cloth made in Tonga showing the shield motif. Collection of the author. Three malevolent Otomi spirits cut from amate: Lord of Thunder, Lord of the Night, and Lord Devil. The dark spirits are easily recognized because they wear boots. Collection of the author. spirit of a person, the mana, resides in the bones, particularly the shin and thigh bones. Sometimes the deceased was left to rot, then stripped of flesh. The skull and long bones were often placed in a remote cave, wrapped in a plain bundle of bark cloth so foes could not find or identify them. The more powerful the deceased, the more secretive the burial.10 This ritual observance was meant to keep the cycle of life continuing forever. Besides being used for both functional and ritual uses, tapa also carried status. Ancient Polynesian and Hawaiian societies were strictly hierarchical, with little chance for social mobility. Serving the chiefs was a way of ensuring life's proper continuity. In Tonga, tapa was laid out at the feet of the king as he walked during celebrations. In Hawaii, there were four castes with the chiefs on top. Kapa was an important form of wealth and certain designs were restricted to royal use. Thus, kapa reinforced a person's status. Amate is another form of proto-paper, but, as with true paper, the amate fiber (the bark of members of the fig and mulberry families) is cooked in wood ash and lime before being laid out and beaten to form an even sheet. The making of this Aztec paper goes back to pre-Columbian times. Fray Bernardino de Sahagún, a Franciscan monk, became fascinated with amate in the early 1500s. He made an extensive list of the way amate was used to honor the gods with paper adornments and coverings.11 The finest and whitest amate was used for codices, calendars, and histories that were stored in great libraries. San Pablito is the one remaining Mexican village where amate continues to be made on a regular basis. Believing the native people were connected with the devil, the Spanish destroyed Aztec temples and burnt the books. Today, only remnants of old ritual practices survive. In San Pablito, brujos, or witches, cut amate into figures called muñecos, dolls, for ceremonies promoting good crops, good weather, and good health.12 Years before I visited San Pablito, I bought a book made of amate describing various muñecos. It was signed "Alfonso Garcia Tellez." In San Pablito, I met Garcia Tellez in person, and bought a set of muñecos: barefoot seed spirits cut from brown amate with fruits and vegetables growing from their limbs; the Lord of the Mountain and his spirit helpers, multi-headed birds cut from white amate; and booted demons with nasty expressions, including the Lord Devil and the President of Hell, also cut from white amate, One demon, Lord Jew, is a leftover from the days of the Inquisition. In Japan, paper itself, unadorned, is held sacred. Unbleached white paper, made primarily from the cambium layer of kozo (paper mulberry), is seen as a mirror of the papermaker's soul as well as a symbol for purity of intention and a life well lived. The papermaker's role is to bring forth the intrinsic beauty of the fiber without overlaying his own ego. Making perfectly clean, unbleached paper is an exacting and time-consuming process; thus it was a valuable tribute offering to the shogun. The word kami means both the Shinto gods and paper, though the two are written with different characters. Shinto is Japan's native religion, a belief system that recognizes spirits in natural forms such as trees, rocks, and the ocean. Even without religious text (Shinto has no body of sacred scriptures), paper has long been used in Japanese ritual as a means to connect with the gods. This association arises again from cambium's role as a plant's life-giving function. Folded white paper appears at temple and shrine thresholds, in New Year celebrations, and during rites of passage. White paper is offered along with rice in the form of grain, rice cakes, rice straw, and rice wine. Rice is a metaphor for physical sustenance; paper is a metaphor for spiritual well-being.13 Buddhism reached Japan in the mid-sixth century. Papermaking technology arrived about sixty years later. Their histories in Asia have been closely linked, since extensive Buddhist texts required a convenient substrate for the dissemination of the teachings. In its early years in Japan, Buddhism was supported by the state and was largely practiced by the wealthy ruling class. These first Japanese Buddhists hoped to gain merit in this world and the next by constructing temples, commissioning Buddhist icons, and copying sutras. Later, simplified forms of observance associated with Mahayana Buddhism began to appeal to all levels of society, particularly the lower classes. A deeper understanding of Buddhism began to emphasize meditation, the Buddhist canon, and ideas of impermanence.14 Throughout the regions where Mahayana Buddhism took hold—China, Korea, Japan, Nepal, and Tibet—important Buddhist manuscripts were written in gold on indigo-dyed paper. The use of indigo in Japan dates back to the fifth century. Indigo paper, called konshi, was made in the late Nara Period (710–794 CE) and through the Heian Period (794–1185 CE), specifically for copying sutras. Good-quality kozo or gampi papers were soaked in an indigo dye bath with a lye mordant. The paper was dried and the process repeated up to eight times to produce a deep dark blue. It was then soaked in running water to loosen any indigo or lye residue, dried, and lightly burnished with a mallet to create a smooth surface. Finally it was glazed with alum and glue sizing to receive the gold ink.15 Universally, the color blue seems to suggest eternity, truth, purity, and peace. Because blue is the color of the sky, it is associated with various sky gods, which the Buddha never meant to become, but which many followers made him. In Japan, more in line with Shinto thought, blue is the color of the sea. In 749 CE, gold was discovered in Japan, making possible gilded Buddhist statues, buildings, lacquerware, and calligraphy. According to Japanese sources, the gold characters were first written with gold clay and then sprinkled with gold powder.16 The metallic writing materials are also described as gold and silver dust, foil, and paint. Gold in Japanese art has a glowing, earthy richness, even when used generously. The earliest gold on blue calligraphy and line drawings were simple and pure. Later pieces became more baroque with text laid out in the form of stupas, and paintings done with solid areas of gold and silver foil or paint. In Heian times, Japan was plagued by earthquakes, disease, and war. A pessimistic belief arose that this was the age of mappo, a time of Buddhist law's corruption. The Lotus Sutra was seen as the most effective teaching in these times, and it was often copied in gold on blue paper. Some of the most magnificent blue and gold sutras were commissioned by elite members of two Japanese clans, the Fujiwara and the Heike. One branch of the Fujiwara clan lived in the town of Hiraizumi, in northern Honshu, the main island of Japan. The clan had grown rich from gold production and built the magnificent temple Chusonji. In 1007, a Fujiwara lord buried a gilt bronze container filled with blue and gold sutras, including the Lotus Sutra that he himself had copied. Such burial, 6 - hand papermaking a relatively common practice, was intended to preserve Buddhist teachings for the coming of the Future Buddha in 5,670,000,000 years. Six or seven centuries later, the lord's gilded container was excavated with his hand-copied scrolls still inside.17 The Heike created their own base on Itsukushima Island, a Shinto center famous for the torii that stands in waters just off shore, in Hiroshima prefecture. A Heike lord did fine gold calligraphy on a famous blue sutra still held at the Itsukushima shrine. "Gold is practically incorruptible. Even after hundreds or thousands of years of being buried underground or sunk in the sea, it still shines as brightly as ever...gold has always had a connotation inspiring a feeling of reverence and even fear."18 Copying sutras was a way of offering thanks for the Buddha's mercy, and a sincere form of prayer for happiness in the future life. Buddhism aims for serenity in the face of pain, suffering, and death. Buddhism in Japan became intertwined with native Shinto beliefs which center around reverence for the kami. That these Buddhist sutras were dedicated at a Shinto Shrine is part of the syncretism that continues in Japan today. According to a common adage: "Japanese are born Shinto, die Buddhist." The blue and gold scriptures reflect a very different spirituality from the simplicity of the wordless unbleached papers of Shinto observance. They required great wealth, the Buddha's words inspired solemnity, and their aesthetic was one of radiant beauty. This focus on attaining worldly power and wealth was very much in opposition to Buddhist concepts of transience and humility. The act of creating and then burying these magnificent sutras was a form of ostentation, coupled with an intense longing to ensure the soul's continuity and well-being. To create them was a display in itself. To bury them was a renunciation of the wealth they represented. The Fujiwara and the Heike clans wanted both to garner spiritual merit and to demonstrate their wealth and power. Below the sutras' blue and gold magnificence, the innate sanctity of the inner bark remained at the core. Thus, these calligraphic sutras made physical the merging of Buddhist and Shinto systems of belief. In Nepalese archives, I have seen numerous potis, Tibetanstyle books with unbound pages held between wooden boards, using blue paper inscribed in gold. According to one source, the blue-black dye was extracted from a plant called nilotho, and the paper called nilpatra. Important papers in Nepal were treated with orpiment (yellow arsenic) and indigo as a protection from insect predation. Since the Daphne fiber used to make the paper contains a natural insecticide, these books are well preserved.19 A Nepalese source says nilpatra is made when wax and lampblack are added to the orpiment.20 This second description may explain why some blue-black pages are more black than blue. Making gold ink was "…known only to a few. They learnt this trade secretly from Tibetan experts." Cholun, gold powder in tablet form, was mixed with nyati, a shell available in the local market.21 In 1995, I commissioned yellow orpiment horoscope papers for a portfolio of Nepalese handmade papers.22 I also hoped to include nilpatra, which was still being made in 1970. My quest took me into back alleys and crooked old houses where elderly scholars sat surrounded by books. The first old man told me his father and grandfather had made nilpatra, but no one continued the craft. The second used to make nilpatra but had not for years. He sent me to a third who certainly did. I tracked him down where he lay sick in bed. No nilpatra, he was a carver. At one point I met a man who had agreed to make nilpatra for some Japanese travellers. He said he would make some for me, too. When that fizzled, I accepted the fact that Nepalese nilpatra is no more. In Lhasa, our Paper Road Tibet team met Sonam Narkyal who did gold calligraphy on ting shog, blue-black paper he prepared himself. It is something of a miracle that he and his craft survived the Cultural Revolution that destroyed so much traditional culture in China and Tibet. Unfortunately, I did not see the process of producing the ting shog, only the way he burnished the paper with a long stick, most likely with a smooth stone on the end, which pivoted from the ceiling. Like Dard Hunter, I had thought of bark cloth as a dead end, proto-paper that never learned to become true paper. But maybe it wasn't. It is possible that the "fine, small sheets of ‘document paper' which are referred to about 150 years before Ts'ai Lun may have been a type of bark cloth."23 It is also quite possible that true paper technology grew out of further maceration of the fibers that were used for bark cloth. The Japanese make a wrinkled white paper called danshi used for special ceremonial occasions. It may have been made as a substitute for bark cloth that was no longer being produced. If bark cloth and paper were two entirely distinct technologies rather than developmental stages on a continuum, one might imagine them co-existing side by side. However, I can't think of any cultures where bark cloth continued to be made alongside true paper. Often, one or several plants hold a seminal place in a particular culture. In bark cloth cultures, fig and mulberry play this role. Over millennia, many Moraceae species have been associated with healing and spiritual well-being. Wild fig latex contains enzymes that destroy intestinal parasites and counter anemia. In India, banyan and Bodhi trees are home to minor deities. Krishna used the banyan tree as a symbol to describe the true meaning of life. The Buddha attained enlightenment sitting under a Bodhi tree. The ritual uses of bark cloth have clear parallels to the sacred uses of paper. It is quite possible that paper inherited its spiritual power from the original uses of bark cloth, coupled with the marvelous qualities of Moraceae inner bark. I have come to see the cambium layer as a kind of magic skin: skin of tree, skin of gods, skin of the world. And it follows: bark cloth is the skin of life and death, the skin of continuity. And from bark cloth to paper. Originally, I made a sharp distinction between bark cloth and the blue and gold sutras. My prejudice was that bark cloth was of the earth and unsophisticated people. I saw the blue and gold sutras as the complex product of highly evolved culture. In fact, the finest bark cloths are as refined and valuable in their cultures as the blue and gold sutras are in theirs; unrefined bark cloth is as functional as the rough rice straw paper still used in Chinese villages for rags. Hawaiians and Japanese lived in hierarchical societies. Both bark cloth and blue and gold sutras have been objects of privilege, associated with royalty and the most powerful levels of society; both carry the sacred resonance of the inner bark from which they are made. When cambium is substrate for Buddhist teachings, a layer is added to a sacred sense already present. Western society long ago abandoned the relationship that indigenous peoples maintain with the natural world, "a relationship to the earth that is based not only on deep attachment to the land but also on…the idea that the land itself is breathed into being by human consciousness. Mountains, rivers and forests are not perceived as being inanimate...the land is alive, a dynamic force to be embraced and transformed by human imagination."24 Our deepest symbols have broad backs. Each added layer of metaphor deepens the resonance. It is interesting to note that a popular etymology for "religion" is from the Latin religare, to bind fast, referring to the bond between humans and the gods. The etymology of "sutra" is from Sanskrit for thread, yarn, string (the same etymology as "suture" which is sewing, often to promote healing). Wisdom, I believe, is understanding that the core of life lies in our relationships with the world of nature, the world of spirit, and with each other. Moraceae fiber and things made from it partake of this sense of healing, binding, and connection. Inner bark carries the animistic belief in the web of life, an alive, numinous, and nourishing cosmos, a world we must treat with reverence and respect. How fortunate that the twentieth-century revivals of tapa and hand papermaking have reconnected many of us to that deep respect for fiber and to a commitment to birthing bark cloth and paper with as much integrity and beauty as we can manage. The author wishes to express her gratitude to Rod Ewins for his research and reflections on tapa; and to Richard Flavin, Melody Cornell, and Tomoko Okada for their help and translation with Japanese materials. ___________ notes 1. Rod Ewins, "Bark Cloth and the Origins of Paper." Paper presented at the First National Paper Conference, Hobart, Australia, May 1987, and published in the Conference Papers by the Papermakers of Australia. For examples of tapa online, go to http://muse.aucklandmuseum.com/databases/general/basicsearch .aspx?dataset=tapa (accessed February 25, 2011); http://www.ubc.ca/search/ refine/?q=tapa&x=0&y=0&label=Museum+of+Anthroplogy&site=moa.ubc .ca (accessed February 25, 2011); and http://anthro.amnh.org/anthropology/ databases/common/public_access.cfm?database=pacific (accessed February 25, 2011). 2. Jeffrey Barr, "Lacandon Maya Bark Cloth," Bull & Branch, vol. 23, no. 3 (February 2005). 3. Lucy Pope Cullen, "Bark Cloth from Africa," Natural History XXVIII, no. 4 (November 1936): 304–310. 4. Harald Schultz, "Tukuna Maidens Come of Age," National Geographic, vol. 116, no.5 (November 1959): 629–649. Other examples of the ceremonial use of bark paper include wrapping dead bodies in Uganda; the use of black bark cloth for funerals in Tonga; and in New Guinea, the gifting of tapa at weddings, funerals, and formal occasions associated with the state or royalty. 5. John Picton and John Mack, African Textiles: Looms, Weaving, and Design (London: British Museum Publications, 1979), 43. 6. Maria Elena Bozzoli, phone conversation, January 20, 1992. 7. Samuel Kamaka, quoted by David Young in "Tapa: The Fabric of Hawaii," Honolulu Magazine, November 2004, http://www.honolulumagazine.com/ Honolulu-Magazine/November-2004/Tapa (accessed April 18, 2011). 8. Carla Freitas, "Tapa in Ancient Hawaii" in Tapa, Washi and Western Handmade Paper (Honolulu: Honolulu Academy of Arts, 1981), 15. 9. See Wikipedia entry for "Hawaiin Religion: Kahuna and Kapu," for a description of a counter-sorcery ritual using kapa cloth, as described in Must We Wait in Despair, the 1867 Report of the ‘Ahahui La‘au Lapa‘au of Wailuku, Maui on Native Hawaiin Health, translated by Malcolm Naea Chun (Honolulu: First People's Productions, 1994), 179. 10. Christopher Pala, "Paradise Almost Lost: Hawaii's Bishop Museum," Museum, March/April 2008, http://www.aam-us.org/pubs/mn/nagpra.cfm (accessed February 25, 2011). An Otomi guardian spirit, Eagle with Four Heads, a messenger for the Lord of the Mountain. Cut from amate by Alfonso Garcia Tellez, this spirit can look for approaching danger in four directions at once. Collection of the author. An offering of two mochi, beaten sticky rice cakes, sitting on a piece of handmade paper on the steps of a small temple in Hitachi-Ota, Japan. 11. Victor von Hagen, The Aztec and Maya Papermakers (New York: Hacker Art Books, 1977), 77–89. 12. Alan R. Sandstrom and Pamela Effrein Sandstrom, Traditonal Papermaking and Paper Cult Figures of Mexico (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1986). 13. Dorothy Field, Paper and Threshold: The Paradox of Spiritual Connection in Asian Cultures (Ann Arbor, MI: The Legacy Press, 2007), 3–15. 14. Lorna Price, ed., A Thousand Cranes: Treasures of Japanese Art (Seattle and San Francisco: Seattle Art Museum and Chronicle Books, 1987), 25–41. 15. Sukey Hughes, Washi: The World of Japanese Paper (Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1978), 198. Hughes noted that some konshi was still being made near Kyoto but shortcuts to the traditional process diminished its quality. Good indigo paper was still being made in Tokushima on Shikoku. For a description of a Taiwanese man resurrecting similar technology, see "Resurrection of an Ancient Art: Classic Paper from the Hands of Wang Kuo-Tsai" on the Taiwan Panorama website at http://www.taiwan-panorama.com/en/show_issue .php?id=200319201074e.txt&cur_page=6&table=2&distype=&h1=History and
.php?id=200319201074e.txt&cur_page=6&table=2&distype=&h1=History and Civilization &h2=Ancient Civilization&search=&height=&type=&scope=&order=&
Civilization &h2=Ancient Civilization&search=&height=&type=&scope=&order=& keyword=&lstPage=&num=&year=2003&month=01 (accessed February 26, 2011).
keyword=&lstPage=&num=&year=2003&month=01 (accessed February 26, 2011). 16. Shakuran taru Kyoten from the series Hotoke no Bi to Kokoro, for the
16. Shakuran taru Kyoten from the series Hotoke no Bi to Kokoro, for the magazine Taiyo, published by Heibon-sha, August 25, 1983. Richard Flavin
magazine Taiyo, published by Heibon-sha, August 25, 1983. Richard Flavin wonders if the description is a mistranslation; he believes that the paper may have
wonders if the description is a mistranslation; he believes that the paper may have been clay filled to create a smooth surface, like maniaishi made in Najio, near
been clay filled to create a smooth surface, like maniaishi made in Najio, near Kobe. Personal correspondence with the author, June 18, 2010.
Kobe. Personal correspondence with the author, June 18, 2010. 17. To see the bronze sutra container, go to http://www.kansaiscene.com/2007_05/
17. To see the bronze sutra container, go to http://www.kansaiscene.com/2007_05/ html/art.shtml (accessed February 26, 2011). For examples of sutras from Japan,
html/art.shtml (accessed February 26, 2011). For examples of sutras from Japan, Tibet, and Nepal, go to http://www.schoyencollection.com/buddhism.html
Tibet, and Nepal, go to http://www.schoyencollection.com/buddhism.html (accessed February 26, 2011); from Korea, go to http://www.metmuseum.org/
(accessed February 26, 2011); from Korea, go to http://www.metmuseum.org/ toah/works-of-art/1994.207 (accessed February 26, 2011); from Japan, go to
toah/works-of-art/1994.207 (accessed February 26, 2011); from Japan, go to http://www.kyohaku.go.jp/eng/tokubetsu/kosya/shoukai/5-04_l.htm (accessed
http://www.kyohaku.go.jp/eng/tokubetsu/kosya/shoukai/5-04_l.htm (accessed February 26, 2011), http://etcweb.princeton.edu/asianart/timeperiod_japan
February 26, 2011), http://etcweb.princeton.edu/asianart/timeperiod_japan .jsp?ctry=Japan&pd=Heian (accessed February 26, 2011), and http://en.wikipedia
.jsp?ctry=Japan&pd=Heian (accessed February 26, 2011), and http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/File:Buddhist_Paradise_with_Golden_Pagoda.gif (accessed February
.org/wiki/File:Buddhist_Paradise_with_Golden_Pagoda.gif (accessed February 26, 2011).
26, 2011). 18. Gerardo Reichel-Dolmatoff, Goldwork and Shamanism: An Iconographic
18. Gerardo Reichel-Dolmatoff, Goldwork and Shamanism: An Iconographic Study of the Gold Museum (Colombia: Compañia Litográfica Nacional S.A.,
Study of the Gold Museum (Colombia: Compañia Litográfica Nacional S.A., 1988), 17.
1988), 17. 19. Jesper Trier, Ancient Paper of Nepal: Results of Ethno-Technical Field
19. Jesper Trier, Ancient Paper of Nepal: Results of Ethno-Technical Field Work on its Manufacture, Uses and History, with Technical Analyses of Bast,
Work on its Manufacture, Uses and History, with Technical Analyses of Bast, Paper and Manuscripts, vol. 10 of Jutland Archaeological Society Publications
Paper and Manuscripts, vol. 10 of Jutland Archaeological Society Publications (Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1972), 92–93.
(Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1972), 92–93. 20. C.L. Gajurel and K.K. Vaidya, Traditional Arts and Crafts of Nepal (New
20. C.L. Gajurel and K.K. Vaidya, Traditional Arts and Crafts of Nepal (New Delhi: S. Chand & Company, Ltd., 1984, 167–170. Another method, practiced in
Delhi: S. Chand & Company, Ltd., 1984, 167–170. Another method, practiced in China, is described in "Resurrection of an Ancient Art: Classic Paper from the
China, is described in "Resurrection of an Ancient Art: Classic Paper from the Hands of Wang Kuo-Tsai" on the Taiwan Panorama website: "Yangnao paper
Hands of Wang Kuo-Tsai" on the Taiwan Panorama website: "Yangnao paper is made using Xuande ciqing paper. Sheep's brain and flue-top soot are mixed
is made using Xuande ciqing paper. Sheep's brain and flue-top soot are mixed together and stored in a cellar. After a long time the mixture is taken and smeared
together and stored in a cellar. After a long time the mixture is taken and smeared onto the paper, and rubbed smooth with a stone to make writing paper. It is black
onto the paper, and rubbed smooth with a stone to make writing paper. It is black as lacquer and as bright as a mirror. It was first made in the Xuande reign of the
as lacquer and as bright as a mirror. It was first made in the Xuande reign of the Ming Dynasty and used for writing with gold paste. It lasts for many years without
Ming Dynasty and used for writing with gold paste. It lasts for many years without deteriorating, and is not attacked by insects." http://www.taiwan-panorama
deteriorating, and is not attacked by insects." http://www.taiwan-panorama .com/en/show_issue.php?id=200319201074e.txt&cur_page=8&table=2&distype=
.com/en/show_issue.php?id=200319201074e.txt&cur_page=8&table=2&distype= &h1=History and Civilization&h2=Ancient Civilization&search=&height=&type=
&h1=History and Civilization&h2=Ancient Civilization&search=&height=&type= &scope=&order=&keyword=&lstPage=&num=&year=2003&month=01 (accessed
&scope=&order=&keyword=&lstPage=&num=&year=2003&month=01 (accessed February 26, 2011).
February 26, 2011). 21. Gajurel and Vaidya, Traditional Arts and Crafts of Nepal, 165-166.
21. Gajurel and Vaidya, Traditional Arts and Crafts of Nepal, 165-166. 22. Dorothy Field, Handmade Paper in Nepal: Tradition and Change, limitededition
22. Dorothy Field, Handmade Paper in Nepal: Tradition and Change, limitededition portfolio (Washington, DC: Hand Papermaking, 1998).
portfolio (Washington, DC: Hand Papermaking, 1998). 23. Rod Ewins, "Bark Cloth and the Origins of Paper." See endnote 1.
23. Rod Ewins, "Bark Cloth and the Origins of Paper." See endnote 1. 24. Wade Davis, The Wayfinders: Why Ancient Wisdom Matters in the Modern
24. Wade Davis, The Wayfinders: Why Ancient Wisdom Matters in the Modern World (Toronto: House of Anansi Press, 2009), 123–124.
World (Toronto: House of Anansi Press, 2009), 123–124.