An historical overview to start: The Brodsky Center was founded in 1986 as the Rutgers Center for Innovative Printmaking (RCIP) by the feminist printmaker, arts administrator, curator, entrepreneur, and scholar Judith K. Brodsky. Eight years later, with the establishment of a papermaking studio and hiring of master papermaker Gail Deery, the Center added papermaking to its program to become the Rutgers Center for Innovative Print and Paper (RCIPP). In 2006, it became the Brod-sky Center for Innovative Editions.1 It was always Brodsky's vision that the Center not only be at the forefront of print and papermaking processes, but more importantly for her, to facilitate the production of content that expanded ideas in the art world as expressed through the realm of works on paper and the art-ist populations who made them. To date the Brodsky Center has host-ed about 400 visiting artists, 50 percent of whom were women and 30 percent artists of color, from South Africa, the former Soviet block countries, Japan, China, Canada, Latin and South America, and the Middle East, as well as New Jersey–based artists and the rest of the US (including Latinx and Native American artists). These artists collaborated with the talented group of master print and papermak-ers based there.2 Many major US and global museums, as well as private collectors, have acquired the artistic projects they created. The Center was also part of an educational institution, where visual arts students could learn print and papermaking alongside professional artists, emerging and established, and a vibrant academic community of gender scholars and activists. Brodsky wanted to inspire students and professional artists through exchange of ideas and working to- gether. Thus, the Center became a feminist model of democracy, an inter-generational facilitator, while the art created there gave voice to previously silenced cultures, contributing new narratives to the Ameri-can cultural mainstream.3 What follows is an edited discussion, weaving together interviews with Judith K. Brodsky that took place on March 4 and 25, 2018, as well as a separate conversation held on April 13, 2018, with Gail Deery, the founding master papermaker at the Brodsky Center. ferris olin (fo): Judy, can you describe the origins of the Brodsky Center and your vision for it? judith k. brodsky (jkb): I thought it would be wonderful to establish a print shop on the East Coast. There was still a dearth of print shops across the country and there certainly was nothing like Tamarind in New Jersey. In 1986, I was associate provost of the Rutgers–Newark campus, but I wanted to leave administration and return to making art. I thought I could put to use my experience with the Rutgers bureaucracy by combining it with printmaking. My motivation for establishing the Center came out of my involvement with the Feminist Art Movement of the 1970s. I thought about all the people who did not have access to print shops, namely women artists, artists of color, artists from countries other than Western Europe, and so on. I wanted to provide the opportunity to create work in prints and paper for this population who didn't have access to professional printmak-ing. But I didn't want to stop there; it wasn't enough. I also wanted to insert women artists and artists of color into the mainstream rather than staying on the periphery. We showed the work to museum curators and collectors. Very often we visited an institution that had no living artists of color or living women artists in their collections until they bought a print from us. I felt we did a lot to bring inclusivity to the art world. I'll never forget selling a print by Margo Humphrey, a wonderful African-American artist, to the Museum of Modern Art. I called Margo to tell her, and she got so excited that she dropped the phone. I could hear this absolute scream of joy at the fact that MoMA had bought one of her prints. As a university shop we had easy access to curators. They trusted us, knowing that we were not concerned about commercial success; rather we were thinking about what was impor-tant in terms of the development of the visual arts. It was very gratifying particularly in those early days to have the satis-faction of opening up the art world to artists who had not had that much access to it. I should say that while the university agreed to my setting up the print center, we were required to find our own financial support and end up each year in the black. In addition to marketing our editions, we received significant grants annually from the New Jersey State Council on the Arts, the National Endowment for the Arts, and other funding agencies; we also held non-credit workshops for various populations including K–12; and we received contributions from individual donors. fo: What inspired you to establish papermaking at the shop and tell me about its subsequent history at the Brodsky Center? jkb: It was really Gail4 who proposed the idea of papermaking to us after she discovered that Steve Kasher wanted to sell his equipment. I said "sure," provided she would become the papermaker. Gail organized the papermak-ing studio and was the master papermaker until she left to become a faculty member at the Maryland Institute College of Art (MICA) in 2001. At that time, we were so lucky to have Anne McKeown join us as master paper-maker and fortunate that she works with us to this day. She continued to develop the papermaking program, to raise it to new heights through continued innovation, and to create collaborative work with artists that re-ceived a lot of recognition. Our concept of papermaking was not to make paper that would function only as a base for the image. Our idea was that paper, itself, had to be important to the artist's aesthetic intent. We had long philosophical discussions about this idea. Instead of keeping papermaking and printmaking separate, we decided that we should work with the two of them together. Combining the two became very exciting to us. A lot of that had to do with Gail's forward thinking about paper and her collabo-rations with our printmakers at that time, including Lynne Allen and Eileen Foti, and this practice persisted with Anne's partnership with master printer Randy Hemminghaus and others. It became something that artists really loved doing. When we picked New Jer-sey Print and Paper Fellows, we divided them up, so that half would work with the master printer and half would work with Gail (and later Anne). Often those projects crossed over, as well. fo: Gail, can you fill in the details about how you both pitched the idea of the papermaking studio to Judy, and then how you imple-mented your vision? gail deery (gd): After Judy agreed to purchase Steve Kasher's equip-ment, we built the new paper studio at RCIP, and then added a new Hollander beater and a Dake press. The innovator and paper engi-neer Lee Scott McDonald, who was designing equipment for Ken Tyler at the time, was a constant resource and supporter while I built the paper facility. Lee designed and built moulds and equipment for drying systems and vacuum presses. The floor design was efficient and complimented the research and production for new projects. When I brought the idea to Judy, we both agreed that the RCIP al-ready had an advanced professional print facility and adding a paper facility would directly link paper and print collaborations, giving art-ists access to both mediums at the same time. Judy was committed to this idea and soon after the Center became the RCIPP. My paper collaborations always utilized printing; many were paper–print proj-ects. \[Ken\] Tyler opened the door for print+pulp. This was a natural advancement that led to experimentation for artists and collabora-tive printers. The RCIPP began considering new possibilities with printing on unique handmade papers and focused research on new developments for creating systems as Tyler did back in the 1980s and 90s. Randy Hemminghaus was hired at this time and was in-terested in all combinations of mediums including handmade pa-per. Problem solving and understanding the nature and challenges of printing on a sheet of handmade paper was part of his practice. Later, Randy worked out a system for printing photogravure on over-beaten abaca paper for William Kentridge, which was thought to be nearly impossible. fo: Besides the collaborations between the staff and visiting artists, the Brodsky Center master papermakers also worked with students in the Visual Arts Department. Judy, how did that come about? jkb: The department didn't pay us to teach papermaking, but both Gail and later Anne, thought about how to promote continuity and development of new papermaking ideas through teaching. We started a papermaking class that was extremely popular. The stu-dents really got into papermaking and even came to the Brodsky Center as interns. Students absolutely fell in love with the tactility of the process, with the potential of paper to become a mode of art making, and how it interacts with making things like artist books. Interns worked on various projects that were being done by artists in residence. Working closely with the master printers and paper- makers and artists helped develop professionalism on the part of the students. On their side, the artists were delighted that we didn't separate them from the students. I believe that the combination at the Center of professional staff, artists, and visual arts students was a really rich and vital mix. fo: This particular issue of Hand Papermaking is thematic, entitled "Pulp the Patriarchy." It examines feminism and papermaking. I'd like to focus now on feminism, your art practice, and the work of the Brodsky Center. How do you define feminism and how have you put it into practice? jkb: I really got involved with feminism in the first place when I started teaching at Beaver College. In 1973 my department chair Jack Davis came to me and said, "the women in Philadelphia are doing something and you may want to get involved in it." He was referring to the 1974 Philadelphia Focus on Women in the Visual Arts (FO-CUS), the all-city feminist art festival. It was a man who pushed me toward feminism, which is sort of ironic. When I had been at graduate school I hadn't thought in terms of getting involved with feminism. I thought "I don't need this; here I am pursu-ing my career with a husband who encouraged me to go back to graduate work despite two kids at home." Then I found out more about what was happening with women artists: not just the political aspect of it, but also the aesthetics. I really feel that through feminist theory I came into my own as an artist. It fitted the way I thought about my art, the art world, and aesthetics in general. I was already heading in the direction without realizing it—a proto-feminist. I created a lithograph-ic narrative about the northern industrial wasteland of New Jersey—my involvement with the environment is something that relates to feminism. My series 100 Million Women Are Missing followed by a 10-year project Memoir of an Assimilated Family are narratives about women's lives. I became involved with feminism on a national level when Philadelphia artist Diane Burko, the originator of FOCUS, nominated me for the presidency of the national Women's Caucus for Art (WCA) in 1976, and I, in a moment of enthusiasm, said "yes." The two-year presidency of the WCA then led me to my long re-lationship with the College Art Association (CAA) where I worked hard on making the CAA more inclusive and diverse, and that culminated in my becoming president of CAA, from 1994 through 1996.5 fo: Well, in describing your feminist art making, I also want to talk about the feminist context of the Brodsky Center. When you and I met with Judy Chicago in 2005 to conceive The Feminist Art Project, she commented to us that she was amazed that Rutgers was a feminist institution. Can you re-count what you replied, and explain the feminist context in which the Brodsky Center operated at Rutgers University? jkb: Establishing the shop with the mission of benefit-ing women and artists of color was feminist and came di-rectly out of my activism in the 1970s. Feminist principles also shaped the way the shop was run. It was collaborative rather than hierarchic. Everyone had a voice. A male graduate student at one point said to me: "I wish I was a woman be-cause you're all having so much fun." At that particular time the Visual Arts Department included faculty such as Martha Rosler, Joan Semmel, Emma Amos, and Ardele Lister, all fem-inists. I heard a similar sentiment said on the outside, "you have to either be a woman artist or an artist of color in order to get invited to the Brodsky Center." Apparently we really made our point. Other departments at Rutgers had strong feminist faculty members, Joan Marter in Art History, and you, Ferris, were then at the Institute for Research on Women. There was an atmosphere at Rutgers that allowed feminist points of view to flourish. We had 800 faculty members who were working on subjects that were gender- related. How we all had come to Rutgers at the same time is an interesting phenomenon be-cause it didn't happen at other places. You and I both realized how much feminist visual arts activity was going on not just in New Brunswick, but also on the Newark and Camden campuses. We decided to bring it all together—the whole being greater than the parts—and so we proposed to the university that we establish the Institute for Women and Art (IWA). We received funding that we shared with colleagues across all campuses, instead of keeping it only for our own campus. I think our generosity was a feminist act in itself. The other extraordinary thing we did was to become one of the first institutions to concentrate on the problem of the aging artist and on what happens to the artist's legacy. We focused on women, but of course it is a problem for male artists as well. We also established online feminist art history courses, run through the Department of Women's and Gender Studies. They were enor-mously successful and brought in revenue for the IWA as well as discre- tionary funding to the department. My answer to Judy Chicago was, "it was all of us who were at Rutgers who were feminists that made the university a feminist university." fo: Gail, will you reflect on your experiences at the RCIPP and what values and strategies you brought with you to MICA and Dolphin Press and Print? gd: At the RCIPP the collaborating team solicited artists that were emerging as Judy sought new directions for innovation and narrative. The Center became an active atelier for exchange and I forged life-long relationships with so many artists. Judy developed opportunities for all of us as collaborators, and that was unusual. We were very support-ed. Occasionally, when we worked with international artists, they were surprised that the printers were all women and were not accustomed to the dynamics across genders.6 But things changed quickly as the col-laborations developed. Judy positioned not only the RCIPP at the center of artist publications, but also everyone who worked at the RCIPP. The path for both teaching and collaborating was reinforced and career pos-sibilities became evident. When I went to MICA in Baltimore I real-ized the impact of the collaborations and the valued experiences at the RCIPP. The importance of the contribution to the field and my career, along with the importance of diversifying collections in museums and archives, and the entrepreneurial aspects of this unique center were in-disputable. Judy had the ability to see possibilities, and an innate sense of what was coming in the future, and she educated the students and staff in that approach. In this way the staff learned to be visionaries, to think out of the box, especially as they moved from Rutgers to other institutions.7 Author coda and acknowledgements: It is a timely coincidence that as I was working on this article, I learned from my interviewees the "break-ing news" about the Brodsky Center. In July 2018, the Brodsky Center will have moved its operations to the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts (Philadelphia), and will be known as the Brodsky Center at PAFA. As an art-world institution, the Brodsky Center exemplifies what Elizabeth Sackler has characterized as a "cultural catalyst" and a "strategic dis-rupter."8 It demonstrates that a print and paper workshop can operate as a successful, feminist, and inclusive art institution, and I look forward to its continued, important work as the Brodsky Center at PAFA. In conclu-sion I wish to thank both Judith K. Brodsky and Gail Deery for making time to speak with me and for providing images to accompany the article. I also want to acknowledge Anne Q. McKeown, the Brodsky Center mas-ter papermaker from 2001 to present, who met with me on May 16, 2018 to expand on the history of papermaking at the Center in the twenty-first century. McKeown's insights helped to shape the article, though she is not quoted in it. She also provided many of the illustrations of visiting artists in residence who were at the Center since 2001. ___________ Notes 1. The renaming to Brodsky Center for Innovative Editions (BCIE) honors its founding director and her husband, Judith K. and David Brodsky. In the ensuing ten years, the atelier abbreviated its name and is now known simply as the Brodsky Center. The Winter 1997 issue of Hand Papermaking featured an article about the RCIPP (Rose Gonnella, "RCIPP, a Center for Collaborations," 9–14); and in the Winter 1999 issue of Hand Papermaking Gail Deery and Mina Takahashi described a joint project of the RCIPP and Dieu Donné Papermill to transform the economy in Ecuadorian villages ("Economic Development in Ecuador," 20–26). 2. Brodsky Center administrators included Lynne Allen, Kathleen Goncharov, Thomas W. Lollar, Marti Mayo, and Paola Morisani. Master print and papermakers were Lynne Allen, Gail Deery, Eileen Foti, William Haberman, Randy Hemminghaus, John Hutcheson, and Anne Q. McKeown. Many other staff members were printers and papermakers for shorter periods of times over the years, some of whom were undergraduate and graduate students in the Visual Arts Department. 3. In the June 1992 RCIP mission statement, Brodsky wrote: "The RCIP mission is to provide the opportunity to produce fine art print editions for artists who are contributing new narratives to the American cultural mainstream. Over 30 percent of the artists who have worked at the RCIP are artists of color, at least half are women, and about 10 percent have come from other countries important to the culture of the United States." 4. Gail Deery had spent several years at Dieu Donné working with Paul Wong and Sue Gosin before her fellowship at the RCIP. She had been in the second group of New Jersey Print Fellows (in 1988), and according to Brodsky it was she who suggested that Deery apply to Rutgers MFA Program. McKeown joined the Brodsky Center after receiving her MFA at Yale. 5. Brodsky has subsequently led other professional organizations, e.g., as president of ArtTable, and currently serves as board president of the New York Foundation for the Arts. 6. Deery mentioned a photo in ArtNews which pictured the RCIPP staff. The image captured an all-female staff standing around a Takach electric press, "but also that was whom we were." She thought this was a strategic move on Judy's part to address the gender question. 7. Brodsky and Deery identified several of the many staff/ students who worked at the RCIPP/Brodsky Center and later went into visual arts education and/or headed departments at other institutions. Besides Deery, they include Lynne Allen (Director, Boston University's School of Visual Arts), Patricia Carter (Chair, Betty Foy Sanders Department of Art, Georgia Southern University), Carson Fox (Hofstra University), Eileen Foti (William Paterson University), Melissa Potter (Director, Book and Paper MFA at Columbia College, Chicago, now closed), and Cynthia Thompson (Director, Graduate Programs in Book Arts + Printmaking and Studio Arts at University of the Arts, Philadelphia). 8. Sackler is former board chair of the Brooklyn Museum and founder of the Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art (Brooklyn Museum). She used these terms in her introduction to Lowery Stokes Sims, who was recognized at the April 2017 ArtTable annual luncheon with their Distinguished Service Award. Sims, like Brodsky, is an innovative arts professional who worked as an educator and curator at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, was executive director and then president of The Studio Museum in Harlem, and served as the Charles Bronfman International Curator and then the William and Mildred Lasdon Chief Curator at the Museum of Arts and Design (MAD). She currently holds the title of Curator Emerita at MAD.